USGCRP logo & link to home

Updated 12 October, 2003

US National Assessment of
the Potential Consequences
of Climate Variability and Change
Educational Resources
Regional Paper: Pacific Northwest


Back to Table of Contents



For lots of additional information, see the National Assessment's main page on the Pacific Northwest "Mega-Region"













Agee, J. K., Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests, Island Press, Washington, DC, 1993.

Alig, R. J., D. M. Adams, B. A. McCarl, Impacts of incorporating land exchanges between forestry and agriculture in sector models, Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 30, 2 (December), 389-401, 1998.

Bachelet, D., M. Brugnack, and R. P. Neilson, Sensitivity of a biogeography model to soil properties, Ecological Modeling, 109, 77-98, 1998.

Bachelet, D., R. P. Neilson, J. M. Lenihan, and R. J. Drapek, Climate change effects on vegetation distribution and carbon budget in the US, Ecosystems, in review, 2000.

Baker, P. F., T. P. Speed, and F. K. Ligon, Estimating the influence of temperature on the survival of chinook salmon smolts migrating through the Sacramento San Joaquin River delta of California, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 855-863, 1995.

Baker, W. L., Long-term response of disturbance landscapes to human intervention and global change, Landscape Ecology, 10,143-159, 1989.

Bazzaz, F. A., S. L. Bassow, G. M. Berntson, and S. C. Thomas, Elevated CO2 and terrestrial vegetation: Implications for and beyond the global carbon budget, in Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems, edited by B. Walker and W. Steffen, pp. 43-76, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1996.

Beamish, R. J., and D. R. Bouillon, Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50, 1002-1016, 1993.

Beechie, T., E. Beamer, and L. Wasserman, Estimating Coho salmon rearing habitat and smolt production losses in a large river basin, and implications for habitat restoration, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 14, 797-811, 1994.

Bisbal, G. A., and W. E. McConnaha, Consideration of ocean conditions in the management of salmon, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 2178-2186, 1998.

Boer, G. J., N. A. McFarlane, R. Laprise, J. D. Henderson, and J.-P. Blanchet, The Canadian Climate Centre spectral atmospheric General Circulation Model, Atmosphere-Ocean, 22(4), 397-429, 1984.

Boer, G. J., G. M. Flato, M. C. Reader, and D. Ramsden, A transient climate change simulation with historical and projected greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: Experimental design and comparison with the instrumental record for the 20th century, Climate Dynamics, 16, 405-426, 1999a.

Boer, G. J., G. M. Flato, and D. Ramsden, A transient climate change simulation with historical and projected greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate for the 21st century, Climate Dynamics, 16, 427-450, 1999b.

Bottom, D. L., Restoring salmon ecosystems: Myth and reality, Restoration and Management Notes, 13, 162-170, 1995.

Brubaker, L. B., Responses of tree populations to climatic change, Vegetation, 67, 119, 1986.

Bury, R. B., Vertebrates in the Pacific Northwest: Species richness, endemism, and dependency on old-growth forests, in Biological Diversity: Problems and Challenges, edited by S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Lovich, J. F. Schalles, and E. W. Miller, pp. 392-404, Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, Pennsylvania, 1994.

Callahan, B., E. Miles, and D. Fluharty. Policy implications of climate forecasts for water resources management in the Pacific Northwest. Policy Sciences 32:269-293, 1999.

Canning, D. J., Sea-level rise in Washington State: State-of-the-knowledge, impacts, and potential policy issues, Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, Washington, 1991.

Canning, D. J., and H. Shipman, Coastal erosion management studies in Puget Sound, Washington: Volume 1, executive summary, report 94-94,Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, Washington, 1994.

Carter, M. F., and K. Barker, An interactive database for setting conservation priorities for western neotropical migrants, in Status and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds, edited by D. M. Finch and P. W. Stangel, US Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-229, pp. 120-144, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, Colorado, 1993.

Cohen, S. J., K. A. Miller, A. F. Hamlet, and W. Avis, Climate change and resource management in the Columbia River Basin, Water International, in press, 2000.

Craig, D., Preliminary assessment of sea-level rise in Olympia, Washington: Technical and policy implications, City of Olympia Public Works Department Policy and Program Development Division, Olympia, Washington, 1993.

Dale, V. H., and J. F. Franklin, Potential effects of climate change on stand development in the Pacific Northwest, Canadian Journal of Forest Resources, 19, 1581, 1989.

Daly C, D. Bachelet J. M. Lenihan, R. P. Neilson, W. Parton and D. Ojima, Dynamic simulation of tree-grass interactions for global change studies, Ecological Applications, 10(2), 449-469, 2000

dell'Arciprete, P., N. Mantua, and R. C. Francis, The instrumental record of climate variability in the Pacific Northwest, Progress report for Year 1, JISAO Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1996.

dell'Arciprete, P., D. L. Peterson, R. C. Francis, and N. Mantua, Climate reconstruction through tree growth indices, unpublished manuscript, available from the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group, Seattle, Washington, 1998.

Detling, L. E., Relic islands of xeric flora west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon, Madrono, 12, 39-47, 1953.

Detling, L. E., Historical background of the flora of the Pacific Northwest, Bulletin No. 13, Museum of Natural History, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, 1968..

Ellsworth, D. S.,CO2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: Are CO2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected?, Plant, Cell, and Environment, 22, 461-472, 1999

Emmett, R. L., and M. H. Schiewe (Eds.), Estuarine and ocean survival of Northeast Pacific salmon: Proceedings of the workshop, US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-29, 1997.

Emmett, R. L., and R. D. Brodeur, Recent changes in the pelagic nekton community off Oregon and Washington in relation to some physical oceanographic conditions, North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, Bull. No. 2, in press, 2000.

Feist, B. E., and C. A. Simenstad, Expansion rates and recruitment frequency of exotic smooth cordgrass, (Spartina alterniflora) (Loisel) colonizing unvegetated littoral flats in Willapa Bay, Washington, Estuaries, 23(2), 268-275, 2000.

FEMAT (Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team), Forest ecosystem management: An ecological, economic, and social assessment, US Department of the Interior, US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Commerce, and US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 729 pp., 1993.

Field, J., and M. Hershman, Assessing coastal zone sensitivity and vulnerability to regional climate variability and change in the Pacific Northwest, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1997.

Flato, G. M., G. J. Boer, W. G. Lee, N. A. McFarlane, D. Ramsden, M. C. Reader, and A. J. Weaver, The Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis global coupled model and its climate, Climate Dynamics, in press, 2000.

Fosberg, M. A., L. O. Mearns, and C. Price, Climate change: Fire interactions at the global scale: Predictions and limitations of methods, in Fire in the Environment, edited by P. J. Crutzen and J. G. Goldammer, Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992.

Francis, R. C., Sustainable use of salmon: Its effects on biodiversity and ecosystem function, in Harvesting Wild Species -- - Implications for Biodiversity Conservation, edited by C. H. Freeze, pp. 626-670, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1997.

Francis, R. C., S. R. Hare, A. B. Hollowed, and W. S. Wooster, Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific, Fisheries Oceanography, 7, 1-21, 1998.

Franklin, J. F., Pacific Northwest forests, in North American Terrestrial Vegetation, edited by M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, pp. 103-130, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1988.

Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness, Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, 1973.

Franklin, J. F., and R. T. T. Forman, Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: Ecological consequences and principles, Landscape Ecology, 1, 5-18, 1987.

Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, G. W. Douglas, and C. Wiberg, Invasion of subalpine meadows by trees in the Cascade Range, Arctic and Alpine Research, 3, 215-224, 1971.

Franklin, J. F., et al., Effects of global climatic change on forests in northwestern North America, Northwest Environmental Journal, 7, 233-254, 1991.

Gardner, R. H., W. W. Hargrove, M. G. Turner, and W. H. Romme, Climate change, disturbances, and landscape dynamics, in Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems, edited by B. Walker and W. Steffen, pp., 149-172, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1996.

Gerstel, W. J., M. J. Brunengo, W. S. Lingley, Jr., R. L. Logan, H. Shipman, and T. J. Walsh, Puget Sound bluffs: The where, why, and when of landslides following the holiday 1996-97 storms, Washington Geology, 25(1), 17-31, 1997.

Gholz, H. L., Environmental limits on aboveground net primary production, leaf area, and biomass in vegetation zones of the Pacific Northwest, Ecology, 63, 469, 1982.

Giorgi, F., and G. Bates, On climatological skill of a regional model over complex terrain, Monthly Weather Review, 117, 2325-2347, 1989.

Giorgi, F., C. S. Brodeur, and G. T. Bates, Regional climate change scenarios over the United States produced with a nested regional climate model, Journal of Climate, 7, 375-399, 1994.

Glantz, M. H., Consequences and responsibilities in drought forecasting: The case of Yakima, 1977, Water Resources Research, 18,(1), pp. 3-13, 1982.

Good, J. W., Shore protection policy and practices in Oregon: An evaluation of implementation successes, Coastal Management, 22, 325-352, 1994.

Graumlich, L. J., Precipitation variation in the Pacific Northwest (1675-1975) as reconstructed from tree rings, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77, 19-29, 1987.

Graumlich, L. J., Subalpine tree growth, climate, and increasing CO2: An assessment of recent growth trends, Ecology, 72,1-11, 1991.

Gray, K. N., The impacts of drought on Yakima Valley irrigated agriculture and Seattle municipal and industrial water supply, master's thesis, School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1999.

Grier, C. C., and S. Running, Leaf area of mature northwestern coniferous forests: Relation to site water balance, Ecology, 58, 893, 1977.

Hamlet, A. F., and D. P. Lettenmaier, Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources objectives in the Columbia River Basin, Journal of American Water Resources Association, 35(6), 1597-1623, 1999.

Hare, S. J., N. J. Mantua, and R. C. Francis, Inverse production regimes: Alaskan and West Coast Pacific salmon, Fisheries, 24, 6-14, 1999.

Harmon, M. E., W. K. Ferrell, and J. F. Franklin, Effects on carbon storage of converting old-growth forests to young forests, Science, 247, 699-702, 1990.

Hargreaves, B. N., Early ocean survival of salmon off British Columbia and impacts of the 1983 and 1991-1995 El Niño events, in Estuarine and Ocean Survival of Northeast Pacific Salmon: Proceedings of the Workshop, edited by R.L. Emmett and M. H. Schiewe, pp., 197-211, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-29, Seattle, Washington, 1997.

Harr, R. D., Water flux in soil and subsoil in a steep forested slope, Journal of Hydrology, 33, 37-58, 1977.

Haynes, R. W., D. M. Adams, and J. R. Mills, The 1993 RPA Timber Assessment update, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, General Technical Report RM-GTR. March 1995.

Henjum, M. G., J. B. Karr, D. L. Bottom, D. Perry, J. C. Bednarz, S. G. Wright, S. A. Beckwitt, and E. Beckwitt, Interim protection for late-successional forests, fisheries, and watersheds: National forests east of the Cascade crest, Oregon, and Washington, The Wildlife Society Technical Review 94-2, Bethesda, Maryland, 245 pp., 1994.

Heyerdahl, E. K., Spatial and temporal variation in historical fire regimes of the Blue Mountains, Oregon, and Washington: The influence of climate, Ph.D. dissertation, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1997.

Huffaker, R., N. K. Whittlesey, and P. R. Wandschneider, Institutional feasibility of contingent water marketing to increase migratory flows for salmon on the Upper Snake River, Natural Resources Journal, 33, 671-696, Summer 1993.

Hulme, M., E. M. Barrow, N. W. Arnell, P. A. Harrison, T. C. Johns, and T. E. Downing, Relative impacts of human-induced climate change and natural variability, Nature, 397, 688-691, 1999.

Jackson, P. L., and A. J. Kimmerling, (Eds.), Atlas of the Pacific Northwest, 8th edition, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, 1993.

Johns T. C., R. E. Carnell, J. F. Crossley, J. M. Gregory, J. F. B. Mitchell, C. A. Senior, S. F. B. Tett, and R. A. Wood, The Second Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM: Model description, spinup, and validation, Climate Dynamics, 13, 103-134, 1997.

Jones, J. A., and G. E. Grant, Peak flow responses to clear-cutting and roads in small and large basins, western Cascades, Oregon, Water Resources Research, 32, 959-974, 1996.

Jones, J. A., and G. E. Grant, Hydrologic processes and peak discharge response to forest harvest, regrowth, and roads in ten small experimental basins, western Cascades, Oregon, Water Resources Research, in review, 2000.

Keane, R. E., and S. F. Arno, Rapid decline of whitebark pine in western Montana: Evidence from 20-year remeasurements, Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 8(2),44-47, 1993.

Kellogg, E., (Ed.), Coastal temperate rain forests: Ecological characteristics, status, and distribution worldwide, Ecotrust Occasional Paper Series 1, Ecotrust and Conservation International, Portland, Oregon, and Washington, DC, 64 pp., 1992.

Kemp, W. P., D. O. Everson, and W. G. Wellington, Regional climatic patterns and western spruce budworm outbreaks, USDA Forest Service Cooperative State Research Service, Technical Bulletin Number 1693, USDA, Corvallis, Oregon, 1985.

Kendall, K. C., Whitebark Pine: Ecosystem in peril, in Our living resources: A report to the Nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, edited by E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, M .J. Mac, pp. 228-230, US National Biological Service, Washington, DC, 1995.

Klahn, J., This time, city folks will bear cost of restoring species, (AP), Seattle Times, pg. 1, September 5, 1999.

Komar, P. D., and D. B. Enfield, Short-term sea-level changes and coastal erosion, in Sea-level Fluctuations and Coastal Evolution, Special Publication 41, edited by D. Nummedal, O. Pilkey, and J. D. Howard, pp. 17-27, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralologists, 1987.

Laprise, R., D. Caya, M. Giguere, G. Bergeron, H. Cote, J.-P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, and N. A. McFarlane, Climate and climate change in western Canada as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model, Atmosphere-Ocean, 36, 119-167, 1998.

Larsson, S., Stressful times for the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis, Oikos, 56, 277-283, 1989.

Law, B. E., R. H. Waring, P. M. Anthoni, and J. D. Abers, Measurements of gross and net ecosystem productivity and water vapor exchange of a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem, and an evaluation of two generalized models, Global Change Biology, 5, 1-15, 1999.

Lehmkuhl, J. F., P. F. Hessburg, R. L. Everett, M. H. Huff, and R. D. Ottmar, Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington, Part 1: Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-328, USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, Oregon, 1994.

Leung, L. R., and S. J. Ghan, Pacific Northwest climate sensitivity simulated by a regional climate model driven by a GCM. Part I: Control simulations, Journal of Climate, 12(7), 2010-2030, 1999a.

Leung, L. R., and S. J. Ghan, Pacific Northwest climate sensitivity simulated by a regional climate model driven by a GCM. Part II: 2 times CO2 simulations, Journal of Climate, 12(7), 2031-2053, 1999b.

Little, R. L., D. L. Peterson, and L. L. Conquest, Regeneration of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) following fire: Effects of climate and other factors, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 934-944, 1994.

Mac, M. J., P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett Haecker, and P. D. Doran (Eds.), Status and trends of the Nation's biological resources, US Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior, Biological Resources Division, Reston, Virginia, 1998.

Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78, 1069 -- 1079, 1997.

Mantua, N. J., P. dell'Arciprete, and R. C. Francis, Patterns of climate variability in the Pacific Northwest: A regional 20th century perspective, in Impacts of climate variability and climate change in the Pacific Northwest: An integrated assessment, edited by E. L. Miles, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1999.

Marcot, B. G., R. S. Holthausen, J. Teply, and W. D. Carrier, Old-growth inventories: Status, definitions, and visions for the future, in Wildlife and Vegetation in Unmanaged Douglas-Fir Forests, edited by L. F. Ruggiero, K. Aubry, and M. H. Huff, US Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285, pp. 47-60, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, 1991.

Mason, R. R., and B. E. Wickman, The Douglas-fir tussock moth in the interior Pacific Northwest, chapter 10, in Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations, edited by A. A. Berryman, Plenum Press, New York, 1988

Matthews, D. A., and T. Hovland, Nested model simulations of regional orographic precipitation, Global Climate Change Response Program Report, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, 61 pp., 1997.

McCullough, D. A., A review and synthesis of effects of alterations to the water temperature regime on freshwater life stages of salmonids, with special reference to Chinook Salmon, EPA Region 10 Report 910-R-99-010, July 1999.

McFarlane, N. A., G. J. Boer, J. P. Blanchet, and M. Lazare, The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation general circulation model and its equilibrium climate, Journal of Climate, 5, 1013-1044, 1992.

McKenzie, D., D. L. Peterson, and E. Alvarado, Predicting the effect of fire on large-scale vegetation patterns in North America, USDA Forest Service Research Paper PNW-489, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1996.

Miles, E. L., A. Hamlet, A. K. Snover, B. Callahan, and D. Fluharty. 2000. Pacific Northwest regional assessment: The impacts of climate variability and climate change on the water resources of the Columbia River Basin. Journal of American Water Resources Association, 36(2): 399-420, 2000.

Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber, The 1976-1977 climate shift in the Pacific Ocean, Oceanography, 7, 21-26, 1994.

Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, and W. B. White, A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation, Journal of Climate, 11, 3112-3127, 1998.

Miller, K. A., Water banking to manage supply variability, in Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources, vol. 1., edited by D. C. Hall, pp. 185-210, JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1996.

Miller, K. A., S. L. Rhodes, L. J. MacDonnell, Water allocation in a changing climate: Institutions and adaptation, Climatic Change, 35,157-177, 1997.

Miller, R. F., and J. A. Rose, Western juniper expansion in eastern Oregon, Great Basin Naturalist, 55, 37-45, 1995.

Miller, R. F., and P. E. Wigand, Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands, BioScience, 44(7), 465-474, 1994.

Mitchell J. F. B., T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory, and S. Tett, Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, Nature, 376, 501-504, 1995.

Mitchell J. F. B., and T. C. Johns, On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols, Journal of Climate, 10(2), 245-267, 1997.

Mooney, H. A., J. Canadell, F. S. Chapin, III, J. R. Ehleringer, C. H.. Korner, R. E. McMurtrie, W. J. Parton, L. F. Pitelka, and E.-D. Schulze, Ecosystem physiology responses to global change, in The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change: Implications for Managed and Unmanaged Ecosystems, edited by B. Walker, W. Steffen, J. Canadell, and J. Ingram, pp.141-189, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.

Morse, L. E., J. T. Kartesz, and L. S. Kutner, Native vascular plants, in Our living resources: A report to the Nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, edited by E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, M. J. Mac, US National Biological Service, Washington, DC, 1995.

Mote, P. W., W. S. Keeton, and J. F. Franklin, Decadal variations in forest fire activity in the Pacific Northwest, 11th Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts, 1999a.

Mote, P. W., et al., Impacts of climate variability and change: Pacific Northwest, A report of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Group for the US Global Change Research Program, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, November 1999b.

Myers, J. M., et al., Status review of chinook salmon from Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-35, 1998.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Northwest Region, West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act, 2000.

Neilson, R. P., G. A. King, and J. Lenihan, Modeling forest response to climatic change: The potential for large emissions of carbon from dying forests, in Carbon Balance of the World's Forested Ecosystems: Towards a Global Assessment, edited by J. Kanninen, pp. 150-162, Academy of Finland, Joensuu, Finland, 1994.

Neilson, R. P., and R. J. Drapek, Potentially complex biosphere responses to transient global warming, Global Change Biology, 4, 101-117, 1998.

Neilson R. P., I. C. Prentice, B. Smith, T. G. F. Kittel, and D. Viner, Simulated changes in vegetation distribution under global warming, in The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability, edited by R. T. Watson, M. C. Zinyowera, R. H. Moss, and D. J. Dokken, pp. 439-456, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1998.

National Research Council, Upstream, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996.

Nijssen, B., D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, S. W. Wetzel, and E. F. Wood, Streamflow simulation for continental-scale river basins, Journal of Water Resources Research, 33, 4, pp 711ff, 1997.

Noss, R. F., E. T. LaRoe, III, and J. M. Scott, Endangered ecosystems of the United States: A preliminary assessment of loss and degradation, National Biological Service Biological Report 28, Washington, DC, 58 pp., 1995.

Overpeck, J. T., D. Rind, and R. Goldberg, Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation, Nature, 343, 51-53, 1990.

Park, R. A., J. K. Lee, and D. J. Canning, Potential effects of sea-level rise on Puget Sound wetlands, Geocarto International, 99-110, 1993.

Parsons, G. L., G. Cassis, A. R. Moldenke, J. D. Lattin, N. H. Anderson, J. C. Miller, P. Hammond, and T. D. Schowalter, Invertebrates of the H. J. Andrews experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon, Part V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods, US Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-290, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, 168 pp., 1991.

Pearcy, W. G., Ocean Ecology of North Pacific Salmonids, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, 1992.

Pearcy, W. G., K. Y. Aydin, and R. D. Brodeur, What is the carrying capacity of the North Pacific Ocean for salmonids?, Pisces Press, 7, 2, 17-22, 1999.

Perkins, R., Climatic and physiographic controls on peakflow generation in the western Cascades, Oregon, Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 1997.

Peterson, D. L., Climate, limiting factors and environmental change in high-altitude forests of western North America, in Climatic Variability and Extremes: The Impact on Forests, edited by M. Benistion and J. L. Innes, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1998.

Peterson, D. W., and D. L. Peterson, Growth responses of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) to interannual and interdecadal climate variability, Ecology, in review, 2000.

Pinnix, W., Climate and Puget Sound, in JISAO/SMA Year 3 report, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1998.

Price, P.W., The plant vigor hypothesis and herbivore attack, Oikos, 62, 244-251, 1991.

Quigley, R. W., R. W. Haynes, and R. T.Graham, Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the interior Columbia Basin, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-382, USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, Oregon, 1996.

Quinn, T. P., and D. J. Adams, Environmental changes affecting the migratory timing of American shad and sockeye salmon, Ecology, 77, 1151-1162, 1996.

Reeves, G. H., F. H. Everest, and T. E. Nickelson, Identification of physical habitats limiting the production of Coho salmon in western Oregon and Washington, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-245, US Forest Service, Corvallis, Oregon, 1989.

Rochefort, R. M., R. L. Little, A. Woodward, D. L. Peterson, Changes in subalpine tree distribution in western North America: A review of climate and other factors, The Holocene, 4, 89-100, 1994.

Ryan, K. C., Vegetation and wildland fire: Implications of global climate change, Environment International, 17, 169-178, 1991.

Shipman, H., Vertical land movements in coastal Washington: Implications for relative sea level changes, Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, Washington, 1989.

Sohngen, B., R. Mendelsohn, and R. Neilson, Predicting CO2 emissions from forests during climatic change: A comparison of natural and human response models, Ambio, 27, 509-513, 1988.

Swetnam, T. W., and J. L. Betancourt, Fire-Southern Oscillation relations in the southwestern United States, Science, 249, 1017-1020, 1990.

Swetnam, T. W., and J. L. Betancourt, Meso-scale disturbance and ecological response to decadal climate variability in the American southwest, Journal of Climate, 11, 3218-3247, 1998.

Swetnam, T. W., and A. M. Lynch, Multicentury regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworm outbreaks, Ecological Monographs, 63, 399-422, 1993.

Terleckyj, N. E., Analytic documentation of three alternate socioeconomic projections, 1997 -- 2050, NPA Data Services, Washington, DC, 1999a.

Terleckyj, N. E., Development of three alternate national projections scenarios, 1997 -- 2050, NPA Data Services, Washington, DC, 1999b.

Tett, S. B., P. A. Stott, M. R. Allen, W. J. Ingram, and J. F. B. Mitchell, Causes of twentieth century temperature change, Nature, 399, 569-572, 1999.

Thomson, A. R., R. F. Sheperd, J. W. E. Harris, and R. J. Silversides, Relating weather to outbreaks of western spruce budworm in British Columbia, Canadian Entomologist, 116, 375-381, 1984.

Torn, M. S., and Fried, J. S., Predicting the impacts of global warming on wildland fire, Climate Change, 21, 257-274, 1992.

Trenberth, K. E., The definition of El Niño, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78, 2771-2777, 1997.

Tubbs, D.W., Landslides in Seattle, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Information Circular 52, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, 1974.

US Census Bureau, Historical state population series, 2000.

US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, US State Fact Sheets, 2000, 2000.

VEMAP Members, Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 4, 407-437 1995.

Walker, R. V, K. W. Myers, N. D. Davis, K.Y. Aydin, K. D. Friddland, H. R. Carlson, G. W. Boehlert, S. Urawa, Y. Ueno, and G. Anma, Diurnal variation in the thermal environment experienced by salmonids in the North Pacific as indicated by data storage tags. Fisheries Oceanography, in review, 2000.

Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin, Evergreen coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, Science, 204, 1380, 1979.

Weaver, J. L., P. C. Paquet, and L. F.Ruggiero, Resilience and conservation of large carnivores in the Rocky Mountains, Conservation Biology, 10, 964-976, 1996.

Welch, D.W., Y. Ishida, and K. Nagasawa, Thermal limits and ocean migrations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Long-term consequences of global warming, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 937-948, 1998.

West, N. E., and M. A. Hassan, Recovery of sage-brush-grass vegetation following wildfire, Journal of Range Management, 38, 131-134, 1985.

Zobel, D. B., A. McKee, G. M. Hawk, and C. T. Dyrness, Relationships of environment to composition, structure, and diversity of forest communities of the central western cascades of Oregon, Ecological Monographs, 46, 135, 1976.

Jump to top of page



USGCRP logo & link to homeUS Climate Change Science Program / US Global Change Research Program, Suite 250, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20006. Tel: +1 202 223 6262. Fax: +1 202 223 3065. Email: Web: Webmaster: